• Mesopotamia with Tigris–Euphrates river system, corresponding to modern-day Iraq to north-eastern section of Ceria and extension to south-eastern Turkey and smaller parts of southwestern Iran. (religious people) (Traders) (Had lacked in war knowledge).

  • Bronze Age Mesopotamia included Sumer (where the first devp. started) and the AkkadianBabylonian, and Assyrian empires, all native to the territory of modern-day Iraq. In the Iron Age, it was controlled by the Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian empires. (Neo = young, developing)

  • Cities, Division of labor, dam, and religion, advanced and mature are points to start any civilization.

SUMER (3000-2300 B.C)

  • It lies b/w present day Ceria & Iraq

  • They ruled for approx. 1000 years and founders of city “Ur”

  • Script- “Cuneiform”

  • Believed in “polytheism” (many gods)

  • Constructed “Ziggurat”

  • Government System - Independent city states

  • God’s Worshiped - “Abu” (sky god) and “Anu” (fertility)

Subject in art

  • Ziggurats from “Ur” (pyramids)

  • Votive Figures From Tel-Asmer

  • Soundbox Of A Harp From Queen Puabi’s Tomb (wood) (inlay work)

AKKAD (2300-2200 B.C)

  • Short Lived rule

  • Located in the north of summer in the valley of river tigris

  • Ruled whole of Mesopotamia and assimilated summerian culture

  • Ruled by king Sargan and his successors

  • Names of God’s Abu and Anu changed to Shamash and Ishtar   

Subject in art

  • Warrior Head (male figure) (beard) (pride) (terracotta and head gear of metal with chains)

  • Gudea (Folded hands) (Small bottom) (inscriptions written)

  • Stele of Naram Sin (on slate) (relief)

BABYLOMIA (c.1800 B.C)

  • Old Babylomia (1800) and  New Babylomia (1100) (King Hammurabi)

  • Hummurabi – made rules, peace law and order, trade system revived, healthy and prospecious came back.

  • Neo-Babylonian Empire (7th to 6th century BC) (Iron Age)

Subject in art

  • Stele Of Hammurabi

  • The Ishtar Gat

ASSYRIA (C.1700-612 B.C)

  • Neo-Assyrian Empire (10th to 7th century BC) (Iron Age)

  • Based to the north of Mesopotamia near upper river Tigris.

  • Ambitious and Aggressive

  • Dominated from Egypt to Persian Gulf

  • After captured in 11th c by Babylonians, they regained their empire and continued with their art and religion.

  • Subject in art

  • The Dying Lioness