INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (7500 BC – 1700 BC)

  •  The Indus Valley Civilization was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India. 
  •  Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and of the three the most widespread. 
  •  It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia.
  •  Nomadic tribes 

ART AND ARCHITECTURE 

  •  Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry, and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta, bronze, and steatite have been found at excavation sites.
  •  A number of gold, terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. Also, these terra-cotta figurines included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. 
  • Sir John Marshall is known to have reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus bronze statuette of a slender-limbed dancing girl in Mohenjo-Daro.
  • Many crafts "such as shell working, ceramics, and agate and glazed steatite bead making" were used in the making of necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites. 
  • Seals have been found at Mohenjo-Daro depicting a figure standing on its head, and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose (see image, the so-called Pashupati, below).
  • Great Bath. Crossing Roads. Well planned drainage. 
  • HARAPPA……. MOHENJODARO……DHOLIVERA…..LOTHAL 

MARGI KALA(Refined)

  • Mainstream art
  • Categorized as fine art
  • Eg. Dancing girl. Priest
  • Every artwork is different and refined.

DESI KALA(Defined)

  • Work in which no change is possible
  • No experimentation
  • Eg. Mother goddess. Terracotta pots etc.
  • Toys- group of detailed artworks.

Artworks

  • The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro" Bronze , Young girl, 10.5 centimeters (4.1 in) high and some 4,500 years old, bangles all the way up her arm, her hand on her hip in a half-impudent posture, legs slightly forward as she beats time to the music with her legs and feet, 
  • Pashupati seal, showing a seated and possibly ithyphallic figure, surrounded by animals. A seal discovered at the site bears the image of a seated, cross-legged and possibly ithyphallic figure surrounded by animals. The figure has been interpreted by some scholars as a yogi, and by others as a three-headed "proto-Shiva" as "Lord of Animals".
  • "Priest King" statue Limestone, The sculpture is 17.5 centimeters (6.9 in) tall and depicts a bearded man. With a fillet  around his head, an armband, and a cloak decorated with trefoil patterns that were originally filled  with red pigment. The two ends of the fillet fall along the back. The hair is carefully combed towards  the back of the head but no bun is present. The flat back of the head may have held a separately  carved bun, or it could have held a more elaborate horn and plumed headdress. Two holes beneath  the highly stylized ears suggest that a necklace or other head ornament was attached to the  sculpture. The left shoulder is covered with a cloak decorated with trefoil, double circle and single  circle designs that were originally filled with red pigment. Drill holes in the center of each circle  indicate they were made with a specialized drill and then touched up with a chisel. The eyes are  deeply incised and may have held inlay. The upper lip is shaved, and a short combed beard frames the face
  • “Male Torso” The Male torso is a red sandstone figure, which has socket holes in the neck and shoulders for the attachment of head and arms. The frontal posture of the torso has been consciously adopted. The shoulders are well carved and the abdomen looks slightly prominent. This nude male torso is considered to be a remarkable object that in its balanced lines stands somewhat equal to the beautiful art of Gandhara two thousand years later.
  • “Mother Goddess” The most important terracotta figure in the Indus Valley Civilization is the figure of Mother Goddess. This figure is crude standing female adorned with necklaces hanging over prominent breasts and wearing a loin cloth and a girdle. The most distinct feature of the mother goddess figurines is a fan-shaped head-dress with a cup-like projection on each side. Rest of the facial figures are very crude and distant from being realistic.
  • Red pottery with red and black slip-painted decoration.
  • Gold Disk (fired steatite)
  • Unicorn Seal
  • Ox or water , buffalo-drawn cart with driver from Harappa.

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