Advertising - Brief Notes
Appeal in advt. : Appeal, in advertisements, is anything that motivates a person to action. Human beings are called bundles of wants. A human being is a strange mix of hopes,ambitions, needs, interests, goals, etc. All these things work as motivating factors.These are also called
motives. Various advertisements try to appeal to some of these manifold motives that force people to take action. An advertising appeal is nothing but a promise of a benefit the advertised product will provide to the buyer. For example, the possible promises or appeals for a home appliance could be - comfort, convenience, economy of installation, economy, cleanliness,dependability and durability, safety, multiple operations, many varied features,trouble free operation and smart look.Advertising appeal refers to the basis or approach used in the advertisement to attract the attention or interest of consumers and/or to influence their feelings toward the product, service, idea, or cause.
Types Of Appeal : Informational/Rational Appeals (Hard Sell), Emotional Appeals (Soft Sell), Humor appeals, Fear appeals etc.
From start to finish, the process of ad creation involves a multitude of decisions that require understanding of both the product and the consumer as well as knowledge of the various formats and media.
Big idea : Behind every good advertisement is a creative concept, an idea that makes the message distinctive, attention getting, memorable. Though great ideas may be hard to come by, but some advertising experts argue that for an advertising campaign to be effective, it must contain a big idea that attracts the consumer’s attention, gets a reaction, and sets the advertiser’s product or service apart from the competitors.
Lateral or out-of-the-box Thinking : this process explores new relationships, breaking established thought patterns to generate new ideas and escape old ways of thinking. Since ideas are turned upside-down and looked at in new ways, this concept is also called out-of-the-box thinking.
Storytelling : Advertising at its best is a form of storytelling. The most compelling advertisements have all the components of a short story. They introduce characters, identify tensions and problems, develop toward a conflict, and then offer a resolution that is usually provided by the product or service.
Creative strategy : To create effective advertisements, ad creators must be familiar with the target's cultural interests, e.g. the music, books and magazines they enjoy; the movies they are likely to have seen; the problems that typically occupy their minds. The creative aspect of advertising is guided by specific goals and objectives that require development of a creative strategy. A creative strategy focuses on what the advertising message will say or communicate and guides the development of all messages used in the advertising campaign.
Unique selling-proposition approach : an advertiser makes a superiority claim based on a unique product attribute that represents a meaningful,distinctive consumer benefit. Many of the successful USPs, result from identifying real, inherent product advantages.
The copy platform or creative brief : It is the written document that specifies the basic elements of the creative strategy. The format of the copy platform varies from agency to agency, but it generally contains some variations of the following:a profile of the target audience, the problem, issue, or opportunity that advertising is expected to address; the advertising objective, the key customer benefit;supportive benefits; and a creative strategy statement.
The three basic components of a Print ad : are the 1.headline, 2.body copy, and 3.visuals illustrations. The headline and body copy portions of the advertisement are the responsibility of the copywriters, while artists, often working under the direction of an art director-are responsible for the visual presentation of the ad. Artists also work with copywriters to develop a layout. The layout involves the arrangement of the various components of the ad, such as headlines, subheads, body copy, and taglines. The tagline is a memorable saying or slogan that conveys a selling message.
In Print advertising, the key format elements are the headlines, the visuals,subheads, body copy, slogans, seals, logotypes (logos), and signature. Copywriters can correlate the headline, visual, and subhead to the attention step of the creative pyramid. The interest step typically corresponds to the sub-headline and the first paragraph of body copy. Body copy handles credibility and desire, and the action step takes place with to logo, slogan, and signature block.
The Headline : Effective headlines attract attention, engage the audience, explain the visual, lead the audience into the body of the ad, and present the selling message. The Headline is the most important thing as advertiser says to the prospect. It explains or gives greater meaning to the visual and then immediately dictates the advertiser's position in that person’s mind, whether or not the prospect choose to read on. Ideally, headlines present the complete selling idea. Working off the visual, the headline creates the mood and tells the reader to take action (through implication)and triggers a recognition response, which reinforces brand recognition and brand preference. Also, the headline should present product news. Consumers look for new products, new uses for old products, or improvements on old products.
If they haven’t been overused in a category, ‘Power’ words that imply newness can increase readership and should be employed whenever honestly applicable. Examples include free, now, amazing,suddenly, announcing, introducing, its here, improved, at last, revolutionary, just arrived, and important development.
Subheads : The subheads, an additional smaller headline, may appear above the headline or below it. A subhead above the headline, called a kicker (or over line) is often underlined. Subheads may also appear in body copy.Subheads are usually set smaller than the headline but larger than the body copy or text. Subheads generally appear in boldface (heavier) type or a different color. Likes headline, the subhead transmits key sales points fast. But it usually carries less important information than the headline. Subheads are important for two reasons: most individuals read only the headline and subheads, and subheads usually support the interest step best. Subheads are longer and more like sentences. They Serve as stepping-stones from the headline to the body copy, telegraphing what’s to come.
Body Copy : The advertiser tells the complete sales story in the body copy or text. The body copy comprises the interest, credibility, desire, and often even the action steps. It is a logical continuation of the headline and subheads, set in smaller type. Body copy covers the features, benefits, and utility of the product or service.The body copy is typically read by only one out of ten readers, so the writer must speak to the reader’s self –interest, explaining how the product or service satisfies the customer’s need.
Copywriters : often read their copy aloud to hear how it sounds, even if it’s intended for print media. The ear is a powerful copywriting tool.
Slogans : Many slogans (also called theme lines or taglines) begin as successful headlines.Through continuous use, they become standard statements, not just in advertising but also for salespeople and company employees.Slogans have two basic purposes: to provide continuity to a series of ads in a campaign and to reduce an advertising message strategy to a brief, repeatable, and memorable positioning statement. De Beers’ ads, for example, still use the famous slogan “Diamonds are forever”.
Seals, Logos, and Signatures. A seal is awarded only when a product meets standards established by a particular organization. Since these organizations are recognized authorities, their seals provide an independent, valued endorsement for the advertiser’s product. Logotypes and signatures cut (sign cuts) are special designs of the advertiser's company or product name. They appear in all company ads and, like trademarks, give the product individuality and provide quick recognition at that point of purchase.
FUNCTIONS OF LAYOUT
A Layout is an overall orderly arrangement of all the format elements of an ad: headline, subheads, visuals, copy, captions, trademarks, slogans, and signature. Helps - develop and evaluate the ad’s final look and feel. Develop the ad’s psychological elements. and serves as a blueprint.
Advertising Layout Strategy Proportional guideline:
Illustration 65 %
Headline 10 % 14
Copy 20 %
Logo 5 %
100 of space allocation (20%+ white %space)
Bleed : A page without a border is called a bleed because the ink bleeds through the surrounding white border into the trim space. An obvious benefit of this technique is that the ad itself becomes larger. Although most publishers charge extra for bleeds, this cost is often justified by the ads extra impact. A bleed carries the implication of action, freedom, and adventure and tends to make the ad more lifelike. In research, it is found that nearly half of all high readership ads used bleeds. Conversely, only 14% of low readership ads used this technique.
Borders : In contrast, borders set up continuity, structure, and formality. Borders can isolate the ad from surrounding copy and other ads -forcing you to focus on the ad.However, they tend to make the ad appear smaller.
LAYOUT STEPS thumbnail sketches - Balance - Proportion - Movement - Unity - Mood - Colour Psychology - Typography.
Typography - is the art of selecting and setting type. Because almost every advertisement has some reading matter, type has tremendous importance.Typefaces affect an advertisement’s appearance, design, and readability. Art Directors rely on stark, eye -catching typefaces to help break through the clutter of competing advertisements.
Type Families - All typefaces (or type fonts) come in families, just as human faces do. Many of them have proud family names, usually inherited from the original designer of the typeface, such as Bodoni, Gothic, Goudy. Certain families offer all kinds of variations. To present his client’s product well, creative executives use various typefaces. Most traditional types have small cross strokes, called ‘Serifs’ that appear on the arms of certain letters. Some of the more modern type designs do not have these tiny extensions on the end of letters. Such typefaces are called ‘Sans Serif’ . Each family offers capital letters and small letters referred to by typographers as ‘uppercase and lowercase’ and may usually be italicized.
Typefaces - Families of type fall into one of several ‘faces’. These include Roman (Bookman, New Century, Schoolbook, and Times), Sans Serif (Franklin, Gothic, Futura 2,and Helvetica), Square serif, or Egyptian (Aachen Bold), Script (Calligrapher and Nuptial), and Pi faces (Wood type Ornaments and Zapf Dingbats).
Typographic noise - is said to occur when type families of the same face are mixed in an advertisement, Sans Serif types are best used for headlines and serifs for body copy as the serif enhances readability. The serif makes reading easier because ‘it cuts down the reflection of light from around the letter into the reader’s eye(halation); it links the letters in a word and provides a horizontal guideline; and it helps distinguish one letter from another. Because of their superior readability,serif types are also preferred for copy that will be faxed as individual letters lose clarity in faxing. Most of the type one sees in a textbook, novels, newspaper stories, and a magazine article is Roman type.
Points - Type is measured in points. There are 72 points to 1 inch vertically. Most families of type offer sizes from tiny 6 point to giant 72 point and larger. When fairly longtext is being set in type, 10-point, 12 point, or 14-point size makes for goodreading. Beyond 14 point are the display or headline sizes. The ad layout included the amount of actual length and width of the advertisement itself. Pica measurements In typography the unit of area measurement is called a pica. There are 12 points in a pica, 6 picas to an inch. A copy block might be termed 16 picas wide by 36 picas deep.
A trademark does not in itself constitute a corporate personality - that is the total impression a company may make on the public through its ‘public relations and advertising efforts.
The trademark will grow or suffer in relation to the other factors.
AIDA : Attention, Interest, Desire, and Action
Advertising campaigns are the groups of advertising messages which are similar in nature. They share same messages and themes placed in different types of medias at some fixed times. The time frames of advertising campaigns are fixed and specifically defined. The very prime thing before making an ad campaign is to know- Why you are advertising and what are you advertising ? Why refers to the objective of advertising campaign. The objective of an advertising campaign is to
Inform people about your product
Convince them to buy the product
Make your product available to the customers
The process of making an advertising campaign is as follows:
Research: first step is to do a market research for the product to be advertised. One needs to find out the product demand, competitors, etc.
Know the target audience: one need to know who are going to buy the product and who should be targeted.
Setting the budget: the next step is to set the budget keeping in mind all the factors like media, presentations, paper works, etc which have a role in the process of advertising and the places where there is a need of funds.
Deciding a proper theme: the theme for the campaign has to be decided as in the colors to be used, the graphics should be similar or almost similar in all ads, the music and the voices to be used, the designing of the ads, the way the message will be delivered, the language to be used, jingles, etc.
Selection of media: the media or number of Medias selected should be the one which will reach the target customers.
Media scheduling: the scheduling has to be done accurately so that the ad will be visible or be read or be audible to the targeted customers at the right time.
Executing the campaign: finally the campaign has to be executed and then the feedback has to be noted.
Mostly used media tools are print media and electronic media. Print media includes newspaper, magazines, pamphlets, banners, and hoardings. Electronic media includes radio, television, e-mails, sending message on mobiles, and telephonic advertising. The only point to remember is getting a proper frequency for the ad campaign so that the ad is visible and grasping time for customers is good enough.
All campaigns do not have fix duration. Some campaigns are seasonal and some run all year round. All campaigns differ in timings. Some advertising campaigns are media based, some are area based, some are product based, and some are objective based. It is seen that generally advertising campaigns run successfully, but in case if the purpose is not solved in any case, then the theory is redone, required changes are made using the experience, and the remaining campaign is carried forward.